"The first man, who, after enclosing a piece of ground, took it into his head to say, 'This is mine,' and found people simple enough to believe him, was the true founder of civil society. How many crimes, how many wars, how many murders, how many misfortunes and horrors, would that man have saved the human species, who pulling up the stakes or filling up the ditches should have cried to his fellows: Be sure not to listen to this imposter; you are lost, if you forget that the fruits of the earth belong equally to us all, and the earth itself to nobody!"- Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
Sep 14, 2013
Sep 8, 2013
I clipped this from the wayback machine archives, as the current link found via the wikipedia article on Horizon magazine is broken.
|Master Table Of Contents|
Hard Bound Editions
September 1958 Vol I Num 1
Few early balloonists' flights attracted more attention than the one that carried Mrs. Letitia Ann Sage aloft from London in 1785 as the first Englishwoman to brave the skies. Our cover painting, The Three Favorite Aerial Travellers, done that same year by J. F. Rigaud, presents the scene - with one major inaccuracy. As shown here, Mrs. Sage's companions were Mr. George Biggin, a fellow passenger also on his first flight, and, resplendent in the uniform of the Honourable Artillery Company, the Italian aeronaut Lunardi, already famous as the first man to make an ascent in England. At the last moment before take-off, though, pilot Lunardi found that the balloon would not lift all three together and so stayed behind and let his passengers soar away on their own. They landed an hour later in a field at Harrow. An article on ballooning begins on page 114. The picture is reproduced courtesy of Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company.
|November 1958 Vol I Num 2|
On his rearing charger, Jean de Bruges, the Lord of Gruthuyse, has lowered his visor to meet the Lord of Ghistelles in the famous tourney held at Bruges in 1392. In memory of this event, King Rene of Anjou created his magnificent Livre des Tournois, whose illustrations are here presented with an article beginning on page 92. Fortunately the book was preserved for posterity by Louis de Bruges, a descendant of Jean, who ordered two copies made and personally presented one to Charles VIII, King of France, in 1489. Other copies were subsequently made, and the reproductions here are used from the parchment pages of French Manuscript No. 2692 in the Bibliotheque Nationale.
|January 1959 Vol I Num 3|
The unknown lady on the Cover sat for this luminous portrait in the middle of the fifteenth century. Her cone-shaped hennin is fastened with a velvet loop beneath her chin and pushed back to reveal the high, plucked forehead so much admired in her time. Aloof and tranquil, she gazes obliquely at her painter, the Flemish master Petrus Christus. The Painting, Portrait of a Young Girl, is in the Gemaldegalerie, Museum Dahlem, Berlin. For an article on modern painting, see page 95.
|March 1959 Vol I Num 4|
The water color Personnages devant le Soleil by Joan Miro, the Catalan painter, shows a red sun in an infinite sky of white in front of which stand two enigmatic figures. The exuberant Miro often uses elements of nature, the sun, moon, and birds in his "cosmic children's corner" described in an article by Pierrre Schneider on page 70. The painting, done in 1942, is in a private collection in Basel, Switzerland.
|May 1959 Vol I Num 5|
It is Wednesday. Baham Gur, the king of Iran, is paying his weekly visit to his Egyptian queen. Gay and pleasure-loving, Bahram Gur married seven princesses of seven countries, built for each a castle of a different color. Bahram Gur was given to vivid imagery: his red Russian queen of Tuesdays was a "honeyed apple, sweet and rosy-hued." To his Roman arus (doll) of Sundays and the yellow castle he said: "The shops close at night; but you, seller of beauty, you must open your shop at night." Bahram Gur lived in the fourth century before Christ. This fragment of a manuscript, dated 1589, is an illustration for the poet Nizami's (1140-1203) Khamsa, and is in the Spencer Collection of the New York Public Library. It shows the king and his Wednesday queen seated in a garden pavilion. An article on gardens begins on page 24.
|July 1959 Vol I Num 6|
One of the most celebrated paintings in the brilliant collection of old masters assembled by Isabella Stewart Gardner in Boston at the turn of the last century is The Rape of Europa by the great Venetian, Titian. The full painting, of which this is a detail, is reproduced on pages 38-39. It hangs (all 70 by 80 inches of it) in a heavy gold frame in the Titian Room in the unique museum at Fenway Court, which Mrs. Gardner left to her fellow Bostonians when she died in 1924. The story of the acquisition of this masterpiece along with many others sought after by the original and redoubtable "Mrs. Jack" is told in this article "Mrs. Gardner's Palace of Paintings," beginning on page 26.
|September 1959 Vol II Num 1|
Carved at the start of the fifth century B.C. or earlier, this head of a helmeted warrior was on of many masterly early Greek sculptures to adorn now-ruined pediments of the temple of Aphaia on the island of Aegina. All the surviving figures are now in the Glyptothek at Munich. An article on page 30 on the meaning and adventures of the marbles introduces a sixteen-page portfolio of gravure reproductions.
|November 1959 Vol II Num 2|
"And for the drink-offering thou shalt present the third part of a hin of wine, of a sweet savour unto the Lord." In an action of final libation resembling that prescribed for the Hebrews in Numbers 15:7, Nebamun, superintendent of sculptors in Egypt, pours wine on the sacrificial pile of animals and meal. As if to insure his safe passage to the other world, the ritual is executed to perfection under the watchful eye of Nebamun's mother, the house-mistress, Thepu. This Egyptian wall painting of the Nineteenth Dynasty is from the Tomb of the Two Sculptors near Thebes. An article on current progress in the field ob Biblical archeology begins on page 4.
|January 1960 Vol II Num 3|
In Tahiti the musical words Fatata te Miti mean "by the sea." Paul Gauguin chose them as the title for the canvas of which this is a detail, and which he painted in 1892. In it one encounters the blazing color and golden-skinned people that make up the enduring vision of the South Seas held by generations of Western travelers. An article on the Dream of the South Seas begins on page 28, and is followed by a portfolio in gravure of some of Gauguin's greatest paintings of the area. Fatata te Miti is in the Chester Dale Collection at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
|March 1960 Vol II Num 4|
This pair of lovers caught in the act of fleeing, with drapery flying, from a sudden squall form the central images of the huge painting, The Storm, by Pierre Auguste Cot, reproduced in its entirety on page 60. Painted in 1880 for the French Salon trade, it has belonged to theMetropolitan Museum of Art since 1887. Although most of the once fashionable academic paintings of the nineteenth century remaining in museum collections have long since been relegated to basement storage. Cot's "classical" tour de force occupies a place on a gallery wall. An article about Salon paintings both in their prime and decline begins on page 52.
|May 1960 Vol II Num 5|
This bearded visage, crowned with thorns, is that of Achelous, great river god of the Greeks, as represented in an Etruscan pendant of the late sixth century B.C. The work, belonging to the Louvre, is testimony to Etruscan mastery of the goldsmith's art and to the fact that the Etruscans adopted this deity, like so many others, from the Greeks. The Etruscans and their arts are the subject of an article beginning on page 56.
|July 1960 Vol II Num 6|
Using a palette of hot primary colors and his customary slashing brushwork, painter Richard Diebenkorn was trying to evoke on canvas the noonday glare of midsummer. Ant the big, bold result, with its amusing hint of flags and bunting, is called - what else? - July. Like two other San Francisco artists, David Park and Elmer Bischoff, Diebenkorn painted for several years in the abstract expressionist manner. Now, with their styles loosened up and their colors ablaze, all three have abandoned the purely abstract to paint the human figure and the California landscape. An article on this rising trio, together with a portfolio of their work in gravure, begins on page 16. July is in the collection of Martha Jackson.
|September 1960 Vol III Num 1|
Napoleon Bonaparte, first consul of France, points the way south across the Alps at the head of forty thousand troops about to cross the Great Saint Bernard pass to descend upon the Austrian army. "I would be painted calm and serene on a fiery steed" were his instructions to his court painter, Jacques Louis David, for this portrait done after the victory at Marengo in June, 1800, and now in a private French collection. By loot and treaty, Napoleon's forces gained many of Italy's greatest paintings and sculpture for the new museum wings of the Louvre in Paris. For a history of the Louvre and Napoleon's part in it, see page 57.
|November 1960 Vol III Num 2|
When Benozzo Gozzoli painted this rapt little band of angels in 1459, he unhesitatingly gave them softly undulant robes, splendid wings, and the further support of rainbow clouds. Not that he had ever seen an angel himself (how many mortals have?) - he was simply following a well-established convention. How that convention grew up is discussed in an article, on page 26, on the iconography of heavenly beings. Gozzoli's angels may be seen in the chapel of Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence.
|January 1961 Vol III Num 3|
When the Chinese Nationalists left the mainland for Formosa in 1949, they took with them the vast Palace Museum Collection of art treasures. A detail from one of the finest of several thousand paintings in the collection - Eight Riders in Spring, attributed to the tenth-century master Chao Yen - appears here. Painted in ink and colors on silk, it shows a group of noblemen in colorful jackets riding through a palace courtyard. The figure at the right, with whip raised, may be an emperor. This is one of the Formosa paintings coming to America this year (see the article, with portfolio, beginning on page 14). It appears inChinese Painting, a recent Skira Art Book.
|March 1961 Vol III Num 4|
Embodying the exotic grace of one of the few surviving island paradises of our time, a Balinese dancing girl appears in her ceremonial headdress, or galungan, before the camera of a visiting American, Ewing Krainin. She is costumed for the legong, a religious pantomime accompanied by classical Balinese music and narration. Her galungan is a jewel-studded crown made of leather dipped in gold and surmounted bysemodja flowers sacred to the Hindu religion. Trained in the dance since early childhood and chosen for her beauty, she is no more than twelve. An article by Snatha Rama Rau on Bali and other unruined retreats around the globe begins on page 20.
|May 1961 Vol III Num 5|
Eugene Delacroix was never more in his element of violent drama and intense color than when painting hisAbduction of Rebecca (1846), a masterly canvas inspired by Sir Walter Scott's romance Ivanhoe and that now hangs in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Here the heroine, Rebecca, is seen at the moment when, amid the siege of the burning castle of Torquilstone in which she has been held prisoner, she is seized by the African slaves of the Templay Bois-Guilbert (at right) who has evil designs on her. A survey of "The Romantic Revolt," including Delacroix's place in it, begins on page 58.
|July 1961 Vol III Num 6|
When Francisco Guardi painted the piazza San Marco late in the eighteenth century (in a painting of which this is a detail), Venice had long since developed a way of life that was unique. "It resembled," said the Italian historian Pompeo Molmenti, "the life of a great family that never left the house; the canals and calli were its corridors, the little squares its anterooms, and the larger squares its salons." The problem of today's cities is to recover this intimate quality, as Lewis Mumford points out in his new book The City in History. A pictorial treatment of the theme of Mumford's book, coupled with passages from it, begins on page 32. Guardi's Piazza San Marco is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Mary Stillman Harkness, 1950.
|September 1961 Vol IV Num 1|
While European Old Masters continue to cross the ocean to enter American museums and collections, contemporary American paintings in increasing numbers are finding comparable homes in Europe. Such a one is Albert's Son by Andrew Wyeth, recently presented to the National Gallery in Oslo by a former United States ambassador to Norway, L. Corrin Strong. Wyeth says that this study of a neighbor lad in Maine is "really a self-portrait of me as a kid." On page 88, an interview with Wyeth introduces a color gravure portfolio of some of his leading paintings.
|November 1961 Vol IV Num 2|
Paul Klee had the kind of innocent magic that could evoke a wistful human face from the simplest of geometric forms. In Senecio he does it with circles for head and eyes, a straight line to suggest a nose, and two tiny rectangles where one would expect a mouth. "It is not my task to reproduce appearances," he once wrote in his diary; "for that there is the photographic plate . . . but my faces are truer than life." Senecio(now in the Kunstmuseum in Basel) was painted in 1922, a year or so after Klee had entered upon a happy decade of teaching at the Bauhaus in Germany. This was the revolutionary school of design created by Walter Gropius; in its artistic ferment - to which Klee contributed - were born the ideas that have since influenced everything from advertising to architecture. An article on the Bauhaus begins on page 58.
|January 1962 Vol IV Num 3|
What mysterious portent has filled the Delphic Sibyl's wide-set eyes with wonder and apprehension? We do not know, for at the moment of revelation she was transfixed forever on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and thus became part of the world's most famous work of art. She is perhaps the most beautiful of the five pagan sibyls that Michelangelo incorporated in his stupendous fresco to symbolize pre-Christian intimations of divine truth. Although the Sistine ceiling provides the overwhelming experience of any visit to the Vatican, it is only one of the marvels in that tiny state-within-a-city. Many of these are described in an article by Alfred Werner beginning on page 22, which is accompanied by a portfolio of Vatican treasures by Skira.
|March 1962 Vol IV Num 4|
Against a background of the glowing crimson that has since come to be know as "Pompeian red," a trembling woman waits for the blows of a lash. This is no scene from the Marquis de Sade, nor even from Uncle Tom's Cabin, but a detail from one of the frescoes uncovered at Pompeii. It reveals a little about pagan religious cults and a great deal more about the high state of painting in that luxurious Roman colony before it was buried in A.D. 79. An article about the rediscovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum in the eighteenth century, and its effect on taste ever since, begins on page 42.
|May 1962 Vol IV Num 5|
The jockey with his invincibly English face is a detail from a larger canvas by George Stubbs (1724-1806), who is so well known for his portraits of horses as to obscure the fact that he painted their owners and handlers with equal directness, honesty, and lack of sentimentality. He was, in fact, one of the best English painters of his time; and as such he was inevitably drawn into the orbit of the Royal Academy of Arts - although more as a satellite than as one of its great, wheeling planets like Reynolds, Gainsborough, or Lawrence. An account of the founding of the R.A. and its once formidable role in English art, as well as its current decline, begins on page 56 and includes a portfolio in gravure of paintings by the artists mentioned above. This detail from Antinous with his Jockey and Trainer is reproduced by courtesy of the Duke of Grafton, for whose family Stubbs painted it about 1764.
|July 1962 Vol IV Number 6|
The pleasures of a day by the Seine were never more smilingly evoked than they are in this detail from Auguste Renoir's Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881). As any visitor to France knows, the river often flows beneath leaden skies or through grimy industrial districts; but in the mind's eye one sees it only in the timeless afternoon of French impressionism, where the season is most often summer. This is what the Seine owes to art. What art, literature, and philosophy owe to the Seine is the subject of an article beginning on page 52, written by Pierre Schneider and illustrated with more paintings and the photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson. Renoir's Boating Party is in the Phillips Collection, Washington D.C.
|September 1962 Vol V Num 1|
This preliminary sketch by Marc Chagall, in vivid pictorial shorthand, sows one of the twelve stained-glass windows with which he created a crown of light for a new synagogue in Jerusalem. Chagall's windows are a high-water mark of the current revival in the art of stained glass, which is described in an article beginning on page 22.
|November 1962 Vol V Num 2|
This portrait of Saint Jerome is from an especially handsome manuscript copy of his translation of Didymus Alexandrinus's De Spiritu Sancto. The book was made in Italy for King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, whose library in its time rivaled that of the Vatican. After his death in 1490 the great collection began to break up, and in 1541 the bulk of it was seized by the Turks. Since then, Corvinus books have been much sought after, but only two hundred forty-four can be accounted for. Among them is De Spiritu Sancto, which is now in the Pierpont Morgan Library. An article on the ways in which books have managed to survive the ravages of history begins on page 74.
|January 1963 Vol V Num 3|
This golden winged bull, reproduced slightly smaller than its actual eight-inch height, was fashioned by a Persian artist in the fifth century B.C. Though it had been borrowed from the earlier Mesopotamian civilizations, the bull became a favorite symbol of the new, virile kingdom founded by Cyrus the Great. It was worked in gold and other precious metals to evoke the fertility of the flocks; sculptured on stone pillars, it became the warden of the palace gates. For Persia's unique contribution to world culture, as it prepares to celebrate the 2,500th anniversary of the Empire, see page 40.
|March 1963 Vol V Num 4|
This jeweled book cover is one of the many treasures of Venice originally commissioned for use in St. Mark's Cathedral. The book it was made to enclose has disappeared, the only clue to its contents being the portraits of Christ and of the apostles surrounding Him. Moreover, one of the apostles too has disappeared, to be inexplicably replaced by an angel, seen directly above Christ's head. The binding, which dates from the tenth century, is gilded silver; rows of pearls and semiprecious stones outline its borders and the enameled medallions, which depict the holy figures in Byzantine style. An article on the greatest treasure of the doges, Venice itself, begins on page 14.
|May 1963 Vol V Num 5|
During the 1870's Winslow Homer created an indelible image of bustled, hatted, and neatly shod young women strolling by the sea, but in this detail from On the Beachthe ladies have at last removed their shoes. Homer was one of the first artists to discover the charms of eastern Long Island, but he went out there to paint the ocean; those who live there now - as the article on page 4 attests - paint anything but. Thus do art and fashion change; today a bustle on the beach would draw more stares than a bikini. The painting, one of Homer's most charming in the genre, dates from about 1870 and is in the Canajoharie (N.Y.) Library and Art Gallery.
|July 1963 Vol V Num 6|
In 1527 Sir Henry Guildford sat for the painter Hans Holbein the Younger, who had just come over to England from Basel. The result confirms David Piper's observation, in his book The English Face, that "Holbein seems to have that purity of style through which a sitter appears to tell his own story, with a clarity that is a distillation of the truth." Guildford was a man of parts, a friend not only of Henry VIII but of Sir Thomas More, and an acquaintance - or at least a correspondent - of Erasmus. His superb portrait is now in the British royal collection, which is described by Oliver Millar, Deputy Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, in an article beginning on page 92. (Reproduced by Gracious Permission of Her Majesty the Queen. Copyright reserved.)
|September 1963 Vol V Num 7|
This Roman coin, bearing the image of Agrippina the elder, was minted in the reign of her son, the mad emperor Caligula (A.D. 37-41). The inscription reads AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI (Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of Caius Caesar Augustus). A stong-willed lady, she made so much trouble over the mysterious death of her husband, the army commander Germanicus, tht the emperor Tiberius had her exiled to the island of Pandataria, where she starved herself to death at thirty-three. The coin is a bronze sestertius, about the size of a silver dollar. An article by Michael Grant on the high art of Roman coin portraiture begins on page 33.
|November 1963 Vol V Num 8|
Under his heavy crown, the heavy-lidded eyes of Justinian look out at us from the walls of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. He was the greatest of the Byzantine rulers, and his portrait is, appropriately, one of the greatest examples of Byzantine art. An article on Byzantium begins on page 4.
|Winter 1964 Vol VI Num 1|
The innovative French painter Edouard Manet adored all things Spanish, a passion that survived even a visit to Spain itself (he was revolted by the food and the dirt). His Torero Saluting, however, was painted in Paris, and the torero is his brother Eugene dressed up in the traditional "suit of lights." The painting is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929. The H. O. Havemeyer Collection). An article on Edouard Manet and his world begins on page 84.
|Spring 1964 Vol VI Num 2|
One of the apparently irresistible themes in art is the legend of Judith, the beautiful Jewish widow who seduced Nebuchadnezzar's general, Holofernes, in order to cut off his head. This regal profile is a detail from Andrea Mantegna's pen-and-brush treatment of the subject, which successfully emphasizes the heroic rather than bloodcurdling aspects of the story. The drawing, dated 1491, is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. It is reproduced in full in an article on Mantegna beginning on page 70.
|Summer 1964 Vol VI Num 3|
The pottery statue, modeled in the exuberant style known as Remojadas, was made in Mexico between A.D. 500 and 800. It represents the goddess of childbirth and death thereby, the same deity that the Aztecs later called Cihuacoatl ("serpent-woman") and that they probably identified with the Virgin Mary after the Spaniards came. Three flat serpent heads form her headdress, and her jewelry is of shells. Her closed eyes, open mouth, and outstretched hand almost suggest sleepwalking. The statue belongs to the museum at Jalapa, Veracruz, where Lee Boltin photographed it. An article on new discoveries in Latin America begins on page 73.
|Autumn 1964 Vol VI Num 4|
The Presidential Bodyguard, led here by their sergeant-major, is the elite corps of the Indian Army. The history of the native corps, formed in 1773 to protect the British Governor General, provides a curious microcosm of the history of British rule in India. Originally set at one hundred cavalry, it was increased in 1803 to four hundred troops, two light guns, and a band. Throughout the nineteenth century, as British fortunes rose and fell, the numbers of the "bescarleted and silvered" corps rose and fell, too. Today, as India's Presidential Bodyguard, it is made up of three hundred men. The photograph is by Brian Bake, whose color portfolio of India today follows an article on Rudyard Kipling that begins on page 60.
|Winter 1965 Vol VII Num 1|
No single painting can wholly epitomize the protean art of Pablo Picasso, but this detail from his Girl Before a Mirror combines in one complex image two extremes of his style: the revolutionary and, in the girl's pure classical profile, the traditional. The artist is the subject of an article by John Canady beginning on page 65. The painting (1932) is in the Museum of Modern Art, New York, a gift of Mrs. Simon Guggenheim.
|Spring 1965 Vol VII Num 2|
Even after arriving in the Holy Land, Jerusalem-bound pilgrims had a good deal farther to go than this fifteenth-century miniature suggests (the city is forty miles from the sea, not the short stroll it seems to be here). Despite that, the unknown artist who painted it in 1455 for Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (the manuscript is now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris), got some things right. One can recognize the octagonal Dome of the Rock, even though he improved on the dome itself, and, to the left of it, the open-topped dome of the Holy Sepulchre. The little red-and-white toy town is Bethlehem. A history of Jerusalem begins on page 4.
|Summer 1965 Vol VII Num 3|
Philippe de Champaigne was Cardinal Richelieu's favorite painter, and the artist painted at least four full-length portraits of him (there is one on page 20), as well as this Hydra-headed version. The latter was painted at the request of one Mocchi, a sculptor who was thus enabled to make a bust of Richelieu in Rome while its subject remained in Paris. Although it is invisible in this reproduction, an inscription over the right-hand profile reads: "De ces deux profiles cecy est le meilleur." The painting is now in the National Gallery, London. An article about Richelieu begins on page 20.
|Autumn 1965 Vol VII Num 4|
In the current enthusiasm for beautifying the face of America, billboards, posters, and similar types of advertising have come in for some harsh words. With our cover illustration (and on pages 97-104) we recall that belle epoque when, among other colorful developments, the poster flowered into a fresh art form that brightened city life everywhere in the Western world, particularly Paris. There, it was said, the lithographs of Toulouse-Lautrec "took possession of the street." Our cover detail is from the first and best known of these lithographs, printed in 1891, advertising the performances of La Goulue, the celebrated entertainer, at the Moulin Rouge.
|Winter 1966 Vol VIII Num 1|
When this searching study of a young woman was painted, about 1455, the art of secular portraiture in northern Europe was scarcely a generation old. Yet within that short span a genius like Rogier van der Weyden had developed a mature style, capable of interpreting the subtle contradictions in his strong-willed sensuous-looking sitter. Historians suppose her to be the illegitimate daughter of Philip the Good, whose Burgundian court, withdrawn to Flanders, helped to nurture the great revolution in Flemish art discussed by John Canady on pages 84-95. The painting, just 14 inches high, is one of the jewels of the Mellon Collection, whose disposition in the National Gallery is chronicled in "Art and Taxes," beginning on page 4.
|Spring 1966 Vol VIII Num 2|
This noble countenance was carved about A.D. 810 at the imperial court of Charlemagne. Only about two inches high, it is part of an ivory plaque that once adorned the back cover of the famous Lorsch Gospel. It depicts Zacharias, father of John the Baptist. Like Charlemagne's great empire, the Gospel was eventually divided; parts of it now rest in Bucharest, Rome, and London. The portion here reproduced, now in the Victoria & Albert Museum, is one of the finest ivories bequeathed us by the Carolingian era, that brief and brilliant period of political unity in what has so long been called the Dark Ages. An article on Charlemagne's achievement begins on page 16.
|Summer 1966 Vol VIII Num 3|
Le Mezzetin, a slightly cropped reproduction here, was painted by Jean Antoine Watteau shortly before his untimely death. This small canvas probably represents a friend, dressed in a costume owned by the artist, as one of the stock characters of the commedia dell' arte. The painting was acquired by Watteau's patron Jean de Jullienne and later, in 1767, by Catherine the Great. In 1934 it was sold by the Soviet Union and is now one of the treasures of theMetropolitan Museum of Art(Munsey Fund).
|Autumn 1966 Vol VIII 4|
The Bayeux Tapestry, a 230-foot length of embroidery that tells the victors' version of the Norman Conquest, depicts Harold of England as a mustachioed gentleman, hawk on his wrist and spurs on his boots. He is riding to a rendezvous with Duke William of Normandy in the summer of 1064. The bird in the upper border is one of many decorative animals that adorn this eleventh-century masterpiece. Harold was a brave and princely man, but his encounter with William in France was eventually to cost him his kingdom and more. Morris Bishop, the noted biographer, recounts the story, beginning on page 4.
|Winter 1967 Vol IX Num 1|
The Hunters in the Snow, of which this is a detail, is one of the supreme achievements of the great Netherlandish painter Pieter Brugel the Elder. It is from a series of landscapes of the seasons painted during 1565 and probably commissioned for the palatial house of the Antwerp connoisseur Niclaes Jonghelinck. There is some doubt as to the original number of paintings in the series, but five still exist; three of them, including this one, are in the Kunsthistoriches Museum in Vienna. The full painting appears in color in an article on Bruegel's life and work beginning on page 22.
|Spring 1967 Vol IX Num 2|
J. M. W. Turner's The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berthis probably his most popular picture. A detail appears on our cover; the full painting now hangs in the National Gallery, London. The warship was in Nelson's fleet at Trafalgar. An article on Turner begins on page 88.
|Summer 1967 Vol IX Num 3|
This pottery vessel, in the shape of a double-headed female, is a handsome example of the art of Stone Age Turkey. It was found at Hacilar, in southwest Turkey, and it is probably more than seven thousand years old. Hacilar art has but recently come to the notice of collectors, and so eager are they to own it that it makes its way - handed from peasant to dealer to smuggler to dealer - all over the Western world. This vase is now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. An article about smuggled Turkish treasures begins on page 4.
|Autumn 1967 Vol IX Num 4|
Leonardo da Vinci's portrait of Ginevra de' Benci, which is now in the collection of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. is the only recognized Leonardo painting in America. It was purchased last winter by the National Gallery for the highest reported price ever paid for a painting: five million dollars. The director of the gallery, John Walker, first saw and coveted the painting before World War II, and his longtime friend and advisor Bernard Berenson urged him to buy it. It was not until 1951 that Walker was able to begin the delicate negotiations for its purchase, and was not until 1967 that he was successful. The story of the painting's history and of it's subject (told in an article beginning on page 24) may explain why so much interest and money have been lavished on the portrait.
|Winter 1968 Vol X Num 1|
Who is the strange piper in the jungle? what hypnotic power does he (or she) have over the lions peering out of the undergrowth? The riddle is always present in the work of Henri Rousseau - the riddle of the dreamworld. The cover picture is a detail from The Dream, his famous painting in New York'sMuseum of Modern Art; the full canvas is reproduced in the special gravure portfolio of his enigmatic jungles that accompanies the article beginning on page 30.
|Spring 1968 Vol X Num 2|
This lovely young face surrounded by flowers belongs to Flora, goddess of spring, from Boticelli's Primavera. One of the easiest paintings to like, it has always been one of the hardest to understand. Scholars have long tried to explain its abstruse allegory. Lately some progress in interpreting the meaning of the masterpiece has been made. The evidence is weighed in an article beginning on page 92.
|Summer 1968 Vol X Num 3|
The Duchess of Alba, society's leading lady in eighteenth-century Madrid, was particularly admired by the artist who painted this portrait of her in 1797 - the great Francisco Goya. He was, in fact, her lover for about seven years. But the rest of Goya's long life was hardly so gay, and his paintings were never again so serene. His gradual darkening of mood - which culminated in nightmare visions of sheer horror - is discussed in an article beginning on page 90. The portrait is in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America, N.Y.
|Autumn 1968 Vol X Num 4|
This odd assemblage of fruit shapes, stone "rivets," and broken tiling is not a contemporary sculpture, but the finial of one of four spires built forty years ago by Antonio Gaudi for his Familia church in Barcelona. Horizon obtained this view from an enterprising local photographer, Alfredo Zwerkowitz Singer, who after limbering up for a few days in the Pyrenees arrived at the church with camera, ropes, and climbing crew, and scaled a neighboring spire to its finial - some four hundred and twenty feet above the ground. Some other striking photographs of some of Gaudi's controversial architecture accompany an article that begins on page 28.
|Winter 1969 Vol XI Num 1|
This young woman with the downcast eyes appears in Vermeer'sAn Artist in his Studio. She is posing for an artist who is painting an allegorical work in which she represents, perhaps, the Muse of history. Yet she is also, quite clearly, an ordinary girl dressed up with a few artist's props, which may be Vermeer's own wry allegorical comment upon allegorical art. The riddle of Vermeer and his masterpiece, which is in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, is analyzed in an article beginning on page 94.
|Spring 1969 Vol XI Num 2|
Two wild cows, long-extinct creatures of the Ice Age woodlands of southern France, appear on a ceiling of the famous Lascaux cave. They are among the hundreds of animals drawn on those underground walls some fifteen thousand years ago. Who did the remarkable murals? For what purpose? And more puzzling yet, for whom were they done? In an article that begins on page 94 Roy McMullen grapples with these and other enigmas of this early art masterwork. The photograph was taken by Romain Robert - Cultural History Research, Inc.
|Summer 1969 Vol XI Num 3|
Tahiti was never like this - innocent girls, naked, or coy and clothed but ready to romp naked through Eden at a moment's notice. That we may think it once was this way is largely the fault of Paul Gaugin, who sought paradise in the South Seas and, failing to find it, simply created it in his paintings. The two lovely young Tahitian girls on our cover sit quietly off to one side in Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, Gaugin's undoubted masterpiece, which is reproduced in a foldout following page 56. The truth and the myth of the painting are unraveled in an article that begins on page 52. "I believe... that I shall never do anything better, " Gaugin said of his work. For once, he spoke the naked truth.
|Autumn 1969 Vol XI Num 4|
Like all Chinese characters, this one representing "T'ang," the great dynasty that reigned from A.D. 618 to 906, is both a monosyllable and a pictograph. The family name T'ang is a picture of the temple. The bottom rectangle is the door to the temple, the upper portion is the temple itself, and the top stroke and swinging side stroke depict the temple's roof. Since the days of the T'ang dynasty a skilled hand at calligraphy has been a prerequisite for passing the civil-service examinations in China, and calligraphy has been an art practiced educated Chinese. The character on our cover was executed for Horizon by Wango H. C. Weng, a New York collector of Chinese paintings and calligraphy. The full, tempestuous story of the T'ang is told in an article by Emily Hahn that begins on page 88.
|Winter 1970 Vol XII Num 1|
Seldom if ever in the history of art has an elderly painter in failing health made his physical weaknesses such a source of aesthetic strength as did Henri Matisse. Matisse's exuberant Blue Nude with Flowing Hair exemplifies the direct, uncomplicated joyousness of his later works - works executed in a new medium that enabled the artist to synthesize the results of a lifetime of grappling with the problem of finding the most direct and the least ambiguous way f representing light and space. This problem and its brilliant solution by an old man who might have rested with honor on previously won laurels are analyzed in an article by Richard W. Murphy that begins on page 26.
|Spring 1970 Vol XII Num 2|
Life in the central panel of Hieronymus Bosch's greatest painting, often called The Garden of Earthly Delights, is unencumbered by conscience, clothing, or cognizance of any higher goal than pleasure. There has been no more enigmatic painter than Bosch, with his air-borne fishes, ubiquitous birds, and such curiously ingenuous hedonists as the couple in this detail. The painting, a triptych measuring 7' 2" X 12' 9", has fascinated generations of visitors to Madrid's Museo del Prado, but what its message may be is a question that has long been debated by authorities. Gilbert Highet puts forth an original and provocative interpretation in an article that begins on page 66. The photograph is from Holle Verlag.
|Summer 1970 Vol XII Num 3|
Helen Fourment was Peter Paul Rubens's second wife and frequent model. The Flemish painter's second period of real artistic productivity is said to date from their marriage in 1630. He was fifty-three at the time, his wife sixteen. The daughter of a tapestry dealer and niece of Rubens's deceased first wife, Isabella, Helena posed for this portrait shortly after they were married. The rich costume and hairdressing both represent the Paris style of the day. The full portrait, a detail of which appears on the cover, is reproduced on page 39. It is part of the Gulbenkian Collection, described by John Walker in an article that begins on page 28.
|Autumn 1970 Vol XII Num 4|
A seven-headed beast "like unto a leopard" appears in a detail from the Angers Apocalypse tapestry... Illustrating scenes from the Book of Revelation, these great tapestries were begun in 1376 for Louis, Duke of Anjou. The Dike and his royal brothers formed a remarkable quartet of art patrons whose story is told beginning on page 54.
|Winter 1971 Vol XIII Num 1|
This impulsive young man and pleasantly surprised young lady embrace in a detail of The Triumph of Venus, a panel done by Francesco Cossa as one of a series of frescoes in the Schifanoia Palace in Ferrara. Painted by several artists in the fifteenth century, twelve frescoes - one for each month of the year - were executed for the duke Borso d'Este; of these, portions of seven remain. Although the frescoes illustrated some astrological portents for the various months, they were also intended to show posterity the portrait of a liberal and fair ruler and the daily life at his court - the environment of the Renaissance humanists. More of Cossa's frescoes, including this one, for April, appears on pages 91 to 94. They accompany as essay by Vincent Cronin on the humanists, who defined what still seems to us an ideal sort of life.
|Spring 1971 Vol XIII Num 2|
A demure Eve presents the fateful apple to an innocent Adam and ushers in the fall of man in a painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Today another kind of fall of man is being proposed by the Women's Liberation Movement with its vigorous attack on male domination. The controversial subject is discussed in an article beginning on page 4.
|Summer 1971 Vol XIII Num 3|
La Grande Jatte is an island in the Seine not far downstream from Paris. Today an industrial site, it used to be a public park. Either way, we should hardly have heard of it except for Georges Seurat. Using an odd new technique he had perfected for the purpose, he painted La Grande Jatte - as it looked to him - on a Sunday afternoon in summer. The detail on the cover, taken from the left background of the painting (now in the Art Institute of Chicago), is a placid enough scene. People are boating, fishing, sun-bathing. The day is warm, there is a breeze. Yet when the painting was finished and exhibited in 1886, Parisians considered it an outrage, a laughingstock. An article by Roy McMullen explaining why Seurat painted the picture, and why people laughed, begins on page 82.
|Autumn 1971 Vol XIII Num 4|
A fisherman recently found this life-size mask of an Olmec ruler embedded beneath the bank of a river in the Mexican state of Veracruz. It adds to the rapidly growing stock of knowledge about this enigmatic culture, the first of the great Indian civilizations of America. The incisions on the mask, which is more than twenty-five centuries old, represent various Olmec gods. An article on the Olmecs by Michael D. Coe begins on page 66.
|Winter 1972 Vol XIV Num 1|
The painting of A Lady with a Pink(the pink, a flower that can symbolize betrothal, being unseen in this detail) hangs in New York'sMetropolitan Museum. It is the work of Hans Memling, whose realistic but highly refined portraits mirror fifteenth-century Flemish society. The painter included likenesses of several fellow citizens of Bruges in his huge, complex Christmas pageant The Seven Joys of Mary, reproduced on pages 20-21 and discussed in an accompanying article by Shirley Tomkievicz.
|Spring 1972 Vol XIV Num 2|
A maiden symbolizing spring strolls through a meadow picking blossoms in a Roman fresco painted around the first century B.C. Her back turned to the viewer, she appears as gracefully indifferent to us as she is to the robe that has slipped from her shoulder. The fresco was recovered from a house that was buried by Vesuvius at Stabiae in A.D. 79.
|Summer 1972 Vol XIV Num 3|
The handsome young rider on the cover, thought to represent Lorenzo de' Medici, is a figure in the fresco painted by Benozzo Gozzoli in 1459 for the chapel of the Medici-Ricardi Palace in Florence. In his splendid person the horseman embodies some of the great institutions of civilized society: the state (the Florentine Republic), religion (the fresco depicts the journey of the Magi), family (the proud Medici), education (producing "the Renaissance Man"), and the city (Florence again) as the center of commerce and culture. After ten thousand years of continuous existence, says J. H. Plumb in an essay beginning on the next page, all these institutions are in peril.
|Autumn 1972 Vol XIV Num 4|
French construction workers, sans hard hats, toil on the girders of a skyscraper in Fernand Leger's 1950 painting The Constructors. Like much of Leger's work, The Constructors epitomizes the artist's lifelong love of modern machinery - "I always preferred metal to wood" - and the "functional elegance" of factory workers. The painting is in the distinguished collection of Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block of Chicago. Leger and his work are discussed in an article by John Russell beginning on page 86.
|Winter 1973 Vol XV Num 1|
Typical members of the British squirearchy, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Andrews appear under the lowering sky of their native Suffolk in a detail from an earlier work by Thomas Gainsbouough that is now considered one of the artist's supreme masterpieces. Around 1748, when it was painted, landed gentry such as the Andrews' were able to lead a life of extraordinary privilege and freedom, which is described by J. H. Plumb beginning on page 72.
|Spring 1973 Vol XV Num 2|
Claude Monet painted this delightful, breeze-swept Lady with a Parasol, and another much like it, in the summer of 1886. By then he was established in happy rusticity at Giverny, north of Paris. The years of grinding poverty were behind him; ahead lay four decades of triumphant achievement in the depiction of nature, an achievement described in an article that includes a special foldout portfolio and begins on page 44.
|Summer 1973 Vol XV Num 3|
The red-haired beauty painted around 1540 by Mannerist artist Angelo bronzino was Lucretia Panciatichi, a member of the Florentine court of Grand Duke CosimoI. Despite the perfection of her dress and bearing, there is a disquieting air of unease about her, in keeping with the spirit of the times. That spirit, and the courtly art it produced, are examined by Professor J. H. Elliott in an article that begins on page 84.
|Autumn 1973 Vol XV Num 4|
This playful collage on plywood, entitled Saint Sulpice, is a 1965 work by irrepressible innovator Max Ernst, who at eighty-two still defies all attempts to categorize him. A survey of his remarkable career by John Russell, accompanied by collages, paintings, sculptures, and other representative works covering more than half a century, begins on page 26.
|Winter 1974 Vol XVI Num 1|
Leading his squadron to victory, the Florentine condottiere Micheletto da Cotignola cuts a dashing figure in this detail from the Rout of San Romano painted around 1460 by Paolo Uccello. Uccello's innovative work, consisting of three panels, is enclosed with this issue. An article by Robert Hughes describing the painting of the battle between Florence and Siena begins on page 24.
|Spring 1974 Vol XVI Num 2|
Paul Cezanne's glowing work, The Blue Vase, is a rendering of simple objects in an ordinary setting, which the artist painted in the 1880's. In such exquisitely balanced compositions Cezanne's concern with the forms of the natural world emerged and changed the course of modern art. An article by Michael Peppiatt, beginning on page 14, describes the artist's life and work; an accompanying portfolio of Cezanne's still lifes begins on page 21.
|Summer 1974 Vol XVI Num 3|
Serene and regal, this is surely the face of Nefertiti, queen of the pharaoh Akhenaten. Found in a workshop at Tell el Amarna, this unfinished portrait still shows remnants of the paint lines that guided the sculptor's hand. Had he finished the work, a wig of faience or gilded wood would have topped the quartzite head, and the whole would have set upon a body of yet another material. Even incomplete, this masterwork proclaims the innovations in art occurring 3,500 years ago simultaneously with Akhenaten's religious revolution. Its ambiguities - and his - are described in an article by Lionel Casson beginning on page 64.
|Autumn 1974 Vol XVI Num 4|
Vincent Van Gogh's Portrait of Dr. Gachet captures the resignation and despair that characterized his last physician. Gachet touches a sprig of foxglove (a medicinal herb symbolic of his profession) and stares with devastating pathos into the void. As Ted Morgan observes in an article beginning on page 4, the doctor's torment awakened his patient's compassion. But Gachet, through his negligence, may have caused Van Gogh's death.
|Winter 1975 Vol XVII Num 1|
A luminous, almost exotic quality pervades Jan Vermeer's Girl with a Red Hat, reproduced to size. Now hanging in the National gallery in Washington, D.C., the portrait was painted about 1667, when Vermeer was in his thirties and the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic was at its height. Anthony Bailey in detail the politics, culture, and daily life of that splendid era in "The World of Jan de Witt," beginning on page 4.
|Spring 1975 Vol XVII Num 2|
These seagoing cockleshells are Viking ships - or at least were intended as such by the twelfth-century English artist who painted them. The miniature comes from a manuscript called "The Miracles of St. Edmund," which includes a description of the Viking invasion of England in the ninth century, and an enumeration of their wartime atrocities. An article about these rough customers begins on age 64. Among the illustrations accompanying it are other miniatures from the same manuscript.
|Summer 1975 Vol XVII Num 3|
When Erte, the fashion and theatre designer of the 1920's and 1930's dreamed up this fanciful ballet costume, it was not intended for dancing but for dazzling. And so it was with the hundreds of other incomparably imaginative costumes that he designed: glitter was what counted. Today his work is enjoying a considerable comeback. An article on the designs - and the imaginative man behind them - begins on page 20.
|Autumn 1975 Vol XVII Num 4|
The muscular nude on the cover was drawn by Peter Paul Rubens in the early seventeenth century as a copy of Michelangelo's grandly conceived figure, painted a century earlier on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Rubens, who looked to Michelangelo as his master, once wrote: "Our feelings are not the same and our techniques are different, but we think in the same large terms ...." J. H. Elliott explores Rubens's extraordinary life, his art, and his hugely successful career in an article that begins on page 64.
|Winter 1976 Vol XVIII Num 1|
Aging and world-weary, the gifted despot Toyotomi Hideyoshi is the subject of this remarkably realistic portrait done around 1598, the year of his death. Beginning on page 12, Donald Keene describes the great period of Japanese history that Hideyoshi presided over. Accompanying the article is a portfolio of details from two six-panel screens that show life in Kyoto, Hideyoshi's capital city, in a day when it was more populous than Paris was.
|Spring 1976 Vol XVIII Num 2|
These stylish young people gathering roses ("good for inflamed brains") appear in a fourteenth-century manuscript of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the leading manual for its day. For the medieval health seeker, the Tacuinum was a complete guide to well-being. It is also one of the key artifacts in the age-old pursuit of perfect health. See pages 16 and 17 for more miniatures as well as some solemn dietary advice.
|Summer 1976 Vol XVIII Num 3|
When Henri Matisse painted The Pink Blouse in 1924, he was a successfully established artist living in comfort in Nice. Some twenty years earlier, at another Mediterranean seaport, he had to struggle to shape his own distinctive style. How he did it, and how he shocked the Parisian art world when he exhibited his brilliantly colored works, are told by John Russell in an article beginning on page 4.
|Autumn 1976 Vol XVIII Num 4|
Like the young gentlemen of the time, this eighteenth-century English doll wears a linen shirt, silk vest, and sturdy woolen coat trimmed with metal braid and buttons. It is one of the countless toys, books, and games that proliferated in eighteenth-century England in response to a growing awareness to children's needs and interests. In an article beginning on page 16, J. H. Plumb describes the development of this new attitude and the resulting boom in the marketplace, a phenomenon that continues into our own day.
|January 1977 Vol XIX Num 1|
After more than two thousand years underground, this armored Chinese warrior is uncovered and measured in a rock vault near the tomb of China's first emperor. Almost six feet tall and wearing a cap that may denote high rank, the soldier is part of a major new discovery.
|March 1977 Vol XIX Num 2|
Four lavishly attired footmen bear models of ships in the imaginary navy of the Hapsburg emperor Maximilian I in this detail from a sixteenth-century painting. It was part of a vast procession on paper commissioned by the emperor whose dynamic and artistic triumphs are related starting on page 68.
|May 1977 Vol XIX Num 3|
A detail of The Virgin, a painting by Andrew Wyeth featured in an article beginning on page 24.
|July 1977 Vol XIX Num 4|
Mikhail Baryshnikov and Christine Sarry Eliot Feld's Variations on "America."